Transcription symbols

A detailed description of the transcription system and symbols can be found in our transcription manual (in Czech):

  • Kaderka, P. & Svobodová, Z. (2006): Jak přepisovat audiovizuální záznam rozhovoru? Manuál pro přepisovatele televizních diskusních pořadů [How to transcribe audio-visual recordings of interviews: A manual for television discussion program transcribers]. Jazykovědné aktuality 43 (3–4): 18–51.

The manual can be downloaded either in HTML or PDF formats.


List of transcription symbols



Speaker identification


Indistinguishable speaker

N1, N2, N3

Unknown speakers

Z1, Z2, Z3

Reporters in transcript heading

R-Z1, R-Z2, R-Z3

Reporters in body of transcript

R-N1, R-VK

Speakers in news reports

[v té]

Two speakers talking simultaneously (overlap)


"Latching" (no gap between turns)


Syllable/word emphasized


Sound elongated

e ee eee eh ehm em hm mhm ehe e-e

Sounds of hesitation and response


Short pause


Longer pause


Long pause


High-rising intonation


Low-rising intonation (slight rise or slight rise and fall)


Falling intonation


Unfinished word


Uttered while laughing


Presumed, but not fully comprehensible expression (uncertain transcription)


Incomprehensible expression


Transcriber’s comment